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Those Spanish Dodges that strolled across Europe


kscarbel
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During the 1960s, the demand for short and long-distance transport was rising and America’s truckmakers wanted to seize the opportunity.

After failed attempts to buy BMW, Daimler-Benz and Leyland Group, Chrysler purchased Spain’s Barreiros Diesel S.A. and England’s Rootes Group to form the European truckmaking arm of Chrysler International.

Ford of Europe shifted into high gear in 1967 with the merger of Ford of Great Britain and Ford-Germany (Ford-Werke AG), resulting in the D-series, N-Series and Transcontinental.

After producing light, medium and heavy trucks since 1931, General Motors shut down its UK Vauxhall subsidiary Bedford Vehicles in 1994. Ironically, Bedford was GM’s most profitable business unit for years with substantial global sales of its KM, TK TL and TM truck ranges.

Mack purchased French truckmaker Camions Bernard S.A. in 1963

International Harvester purchased a 33 percent stake in financially struggling DAF in 1973. DAF-powered PayStars were sold in Europe, while International-badged DAF 2800s were sold in South Africa. The company then acquired UK truckmaker Seddon Atkinson in 1974. I-H purchased a 35% stake in Spanish truckmaker Pegaso’s parent company Enasa Group in 1980, and together they formed "Pegaso Internatonal" in which I-H held a 65% stake. (I-H sold its Pegaso stake and Seddon Atkinson to Enasa in 1983).

Paccar purchased England’s Foden in 1981, DAF in 1996 and Leyland’s light and medium truck unit in 1998. (Paccar has risen impressively into a true global player, and the only American truckmaker with a significant global presence today)

Daimler and Volvo purchased Freightliner and White respectively in 1981, largely removing these two former American truckmakers from the European equation (I say largely because Daimler, unlike Volvo, actually promotes Argosy II COE sales in some global markets – the global market preference is largely COEs).

Note: The distribution agreement in which White marketed Freightliner trucks ended in 1974, allowing each to evolve forward independently.

Timeline:

1951: Spanish heavy truckmaker Barreiros Diesel S.A. was established. The firm produced licensed AEC diesel engines (The former UK maker of commercial trucks and double-decker buses: 1908-1979). Later truck, bus and farm tractor production was added.

1965: Chrysler Corporation begins taking a stake in UK car and truck producer Rootes Group.

Dodge Brothers (Britain) is merged into Rootes Group.

1967: Chrysler Corporation acquired 77% of Barreiros Diesel and took full control of Rootes Group.

1969: Chrysler took full control of Barreiros Diesel.

1970: Barreiros Diesel was renamed to Chrysler Espana S.A.

In summary, Chrysler International formed Chrysler Europe through the acquisition of Barreiros (Spain), Rootes Group (UK) and Simca (France), which became Chrysler Espana, Chrysler UK and Chrysler France respectively.

1978: PSA Peugeot-Citroën buys the three European subsidiaries of Chrysler Corporation: Chrysler-France (Simca), Chrysler UK (Sunbeam-Rootes) and Chrysler Espana S.A.

1981: PSA Peugeot-Citroën sells the European Dodge truck unit to Renault (The French government did not want Peugeot to create a new competitor for Renault, after having merged Berliet and Saviem into Renault in 1978 to form Renault Vehicules Industriels, a.k.a. RVI).

Initially, Renault added the RVI logo to the grille but also retained the Dodge lettering. Later the Dodge name was dropped.

Renault later mounted the Renault R series cab onto the Dodge chassis (which originated from the Berliet TR series cab shared with Ford for the “Transcontinental”).

Renault produced Dodge models until 1994-1995.

Dodge had operated plants in Madrid, Spain and Dunstable, UK (the Commer plant). Initially, the light and medium models retained U.S. cabs while the heavy models used European cabs.

The Dodge European heavyweights initially had proprietary Barreiros diesel engines. Later, Cummins and Perkins V-8 engines were available.

Chrysler International wanted a Chrysler-made diesel and Cummins agreed to a 50/50 joint venture. Chrysler-badged Cummins V6 and V8 engines were produced in Darlington, County Durham, UK (Cummins remains there today).

The Chrysler/Cummins engines, known as the VAL (V6) and VALE (V8), were all-new designs developed by Cummins for Europe. But Cummins hadn’t been able to justify the European market investment until forming the partnership with Chrysler.

The one weak point of the earlier models equipped with higher horsepower engines was the Barreiros-built 8-speed range-type transmission. A change to Fuller transmission resulted in a solid truck that was known for out climbing the Volvo F88s of the day!

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After PSA Peugeot-Citroën sold the European Dodge truck unit to Renault, the trucks bore both the Dodge and Renault emblems for a time> The truck remained little changed until the Renault R series cab was added.

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During the 1960s, the demand for short and long-distance transport was rising and America’s truckmakers wanted to seize the opportunity.

Chrysler purchased Spain’s Barreiros Diesel S.A. and England’s Rootes Group to form the European truckmaking arm of Chrysler International.

Ford of Europe shifted into high gear in 1967 with the merger of Ford of Great Britain and Ford-Germany (Ford-Werke AG), resulting in the D-series, N-Series and Transcontinental.

After producing light, medium and heavy trucks since 1931, General Motors shut down its UK Vauxhall subsidiary Bedford Vehicles in 1994. Ironically, Bedford was GM’s most profitable business unit for years with substantial global sales of its KM, TK TL and TM truck ranges.

Mack purchased French truckmaker Camions Bernard S.A. in 1963

International Harvester purchased English truckmaker Seddon Atkinson in 1974. I-H purchased a 35% stake in Spanish truckmaker Pegaso’s parent company Enasa Group in 1980, and together they formed "Pegaso Internatonal" in which I-H held a 65% stake. (I-H sold its Pegaso stake and Seddon Atkinson to Enasa in 1983).

Paccar purchased England’s Foden in 1981, DAF in 1996 and Leyland’s light and medium truck unit in 1998. (Paccar has risen impressively into a true global player, and the only American truckmaker with a significant global presence today)

Daimler and Volvo purchased Freightliner and White respectively in 1981, largely removing these two former American truckmakers from the European equation (I say largely because Daimler, unlike Volvo, actually promotes Argosy II COE sales in some global markets – the global market preference is largely COEs).

Note: The distribution agreement in which White marketed Freightliner trucks ended in 1974, allowing each to evolve forward independently.

Timeline:

1951: Spanish heavy truckmaker Barreiros Diesel S.A. was established. The firm produced licensed AEC diesel engines (The former UK maker of commercial trucks and double-decker buses: 1908-1979). Later truck, bus and farm tractor production was added.

1965: Chrysler Corporation begins taking a stake in UK car and truck producer Rootes Group

1967: Chrysler Corporation acquired 77% of Barreiros Diesel and took full control of Rootes Group.

1969: Chrysler took full control of Barreiros Diesel.

1970: Barreiros Diesel was renamed to Chrysler Espana S.A.

In summary, Chrysler Europe was formed through the acquisition of Barreiros (Spain), Rootes Group (UK) and Simca (France).

1978: PSA Peugeot-Citroën buys the three European subsidiaries of Chrysler Corporation: Chrysler-France (Simca), Chrysler UK (Sunbeam-Rootes) and Chrysler Espana S.A.

1981: PSA Peugeot-Citroën sells the European Dodge truck unit to Renault (The French government did not want Peugeot to create a new competitor for Renault, after having merged Berliet and Saviem into Renault in 1978 to form Renault Vehicules Industriels, a.k.a. RVI).

Initially, Renault added the RVI logo to the grille but also retained the Dodge lettering. Later the Dodge name was dropped.

Renault later mounted the Renault R series cab onto the Dodge chassis (which originated from the Berliet TR series cab shared with Ford for the “Transcontinental”).

Dodge had operated plants in Madrid, Spain and Dunstable, UK (the Commer plant). Initially, the light and medium models retained U.S. cabs while the heavy models used European cabs.

The Dodge European heavyweights initially had proprietary Barreiros diesel engines. Later, Cummins and Perkins V-8 engines were available.

Chrysler International wanted a Chrysler-made diesel and Cummins agreed to a 50/50 joint venture. Chrysler-badged Cummins V6 and V8 engines were produced in Darlington, County Durham, UK (Cummins remains there today).

The Chrysler/Cummins engines, known as the VAL (V6) and VALE (V8), were all-new designs developed by Cummins for Europe. But Cummins hadn’t been able to justify the European market investment until forming the partnership with Chrysler.

The one weak point of the earlier models equipped with higher horsepower engines was the Barreiros-built 8-speed range-type transmission. A change to Fuller transmission resulted in a solid truck that was known for out climbing the Volvo F88s of the day!

.

I tried to order a Freightliner C-O just last month, to use out of our JC term. for del. into NYC and the boroughs, and was told just that 'We build them over here to export only'. At least the ships are bringin somethin back to the old country!

BULLHUSK

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On 5/10/2013 at 9:08 PM, bullhusk said:
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I tried to order a Freightliner C-O just last month, to use out of our JC term. for del. into NYC and the boroughs, and was told just that 'We build them over here to export only'. At least the ships are bringin somethin back to the old country!

BULLHUSK

Interestingly, while they won't sell you an Argosy II COE, Daimler will sell them to Walmart across the border in Canada.

To see this truck, a brilliant concept in efficiency, it's amazing how we've come full circle, thinking of the days when Pacific Intermountain Express (PIE) ran a large fleet of these dromedaries.

http://www.todaystrucking.com/walmart-carries-more-stuff-with-less-truck

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Freightliner Argosy - Walmart Canada dromedary.jpg

Freightliner Argosy - Walmart Canada dromedary..jpg

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On 5/14/2013 at 6:07 PM, RFCDrum said:

I like the 'Chinese Six' in the first pic.

Cheers, Rob

The Chinese six concept began in the UK (please correct me if I'm wrong BC Mack). I like them as well. It's a brilliantly simple way of better distributing truck weight for longer road life. I can't understand why it hasn't been tried in the US. Maneuverability is quite good. The Chinese 6x2 or 8x2 designs offer safe and efficient transport at a lower purchase price. For operators that stay on-road, you'll have no complaints.

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It's just a single axle with a twin steer on the front. In the UK they are running a lot of 8X2 which is a single axle with tag and twin steer on the front because they have trouble on the country lanes getting into some of these places that were originally designed for horse and cart and probably Roman time when they occupies the UK.

Cheers, Rob

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On 5/15/2013 at 2:23 AM, MackLegacy said:

can you explain the Chinese six concept to someone who hasn't heard of it before? thanks!

The concept of the 'Chinese Six' goes back to the 30's in the UK... as mentioned, it was an easy way to balance axle loads and prevented front axle overloading which was its main advantage.

There was a revival in the late 60's when used in tractor units, legislation was pending to align UK and EEC regs but on five axles and for this the manufacturers thought it was easier to pre-empt with the Chinese Six tractor rather than a three axle trailer..

the legislation never came and the production ended quickly... it took many years before UK and EU weights were married.

I worked on many of these POS short tractors, no room to work, imagine doing a clutch on a fixed cab cabover with a steer axle right under the tranny...!!

Scammell seemed to have a big market as I remember many used by Shell and BP Oil... even Bedford utilised the concept in their front engined VAL coach.

the four axle on a rigid frame, twin steer with one and sometimes two drivers was built in great numbers as at 30 ton vs. tractor-trailer 32ton it served the "tipper" industry well, dump truck in American parlance..

Why "Chinese Six"? well, in the politically incorrect past it was a tongue in cheek reference to Chinese writing "backwards", which is what the axle relationship was to a normal three axle "lorry".....

BC Mack

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Good explanation BC. Would the 6X2 tractors today in the UK be still considered the Chinese Six? I know 6x2 plus three on the trailer allows them 44 ton. I always liked UK tippers 8 leggers.

Cheers, Rob

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Good explanation BC. Would the 6X2 tractors today in the UK be still considered the Chinese Six? I know 6x2 plus three on the trailer allows them 44 ton. I always liked UK tippers 8 leggers.

Cheers, Rob

Ssshhhhhhh, PC police might be watching this...... can't call it that anymore!!!!!!!!!!

In concept, yes...... 6x2 of the 80's was usually a lift axle in 3rd position, IIRC the weight was 38ton then... current production from, say, the parent of Mack is the FH16-700 6x2 with hydraulically steered 2nd axle is 44ton capable. I'm not as in tune with modern day EU trucks but with better electronics to control these steering axles, the second row would certainly give an advantage in turning.

those 8 leggers were a money maker back in my day, from farm boy to millionair fleet owner was possible in the building frenzy of the 70-90's.

Apologies to KSCarbel for stealing your thread....

BC Mack

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The concept of the 'Chinese Six' goes back to the 30's in the UK... as mentioned, it was an easy way to balance axle loads and prevented front axle overloading which was its main advantage.

There was a revival in the late 60's when used in tractor units, legislation was pending to align UK and EEC regs but on five axles and for this the manufacturers thought it was easier to pre-empt with the Chinese Six tractor rather than a three axle trailer..

the legislation never came and the production ended quickly... it took many years before UK and EU weights were married.

I worked on many of these POS short tractors, no room to work, imagine doing a clutch on a fixed cab cabover with a steer axle right under the tranny...!!

Scammell seemed to have a big market as I remember many used by Shell and BP Oil... even Bedford utilised the concept in their front engined VAL coach.

the four axle on a rigid frame, twin steer with one and sometimes two drivers was built in great numbers as at 30 ton vs. tractor-trailer 32ton it served the "tipper" industry well, dump truck in American parlance..

Why "Cinese Six"? well, in the politically incorrect past it was a tongue in cheek reference to Chinese writing "backwards", which is what the axle relationship was to a normal three axle "lorry".....

BC Mack

The UK's VERY short tractor wheelbases make maintenance more of a hassle.

I call them a Chinese six because China is the most popular market for them today (tractors and straight trucks). Pulling a clutch is no issue today, with tilt cabs and typically twin-steer axle spacing of 1900mm to 2100mm (6.23 to 6.89 feet).

In on-road operation, a 6x2 twin-steer tractor provides you with 90 percent of the abiity of a 6x4, with lower purchase and operating costs, and reduced curb weight for greater payloads.

True, you can't lift that second steer (auxiliary) axle, but most people run loaded all the time anyway (the exception being the petroleum haulers who might lift a conventional 6x2 tractor's tag axle when running empty back to the oil terminal, but the 6x2 twin-steer would still save them money).

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